Mind Reading Trick – The Centre Tear

A classic of mind reading is the ‘centre tear’. With a centre tear you can deduce information a spectator has written. You get the spectator to write or draw something on a piece of paper then covertly tear out that section and secretly take a look at it. Here is a centre tear method you can try:

For this trick you need a ‘billet’ (piece of paper or card) roughly 7cmx7cm, a pencil and a cigarette lighter.

Step 1: Pre-fold the billet into 4 equal quarters like so:

center tear

Step 2: Draw an elipse in the middle about 4cm across

center tear2

Step 3: Hand the volunteer a pencil. Ask him to think of a name clearly in his mind and print it on the middle of the paper.

Step 4: Once he has done that ask him to fold the billet back up like it was before. Once folded show everyone there is no way you could see through the paper.

Step 5: You are now going to tear the billet. Place it so the circle is between your thumb and index finger and tear it out. Now tear off another third. Rip the remainder of the billet again and again, placing the torn off piece at the bottom of the pile each time.

Step 6: Slip the centre into your right hand and transfer the other pieces into your left hand. Focus everyone’s attention on your left hand at this point.

Step 7: Now place the pieces of paper in your left hand into an ashtray. Reach into your right hand pocket where you have the lighter and at the same time you get the lighter, drop the centre piece of paper into your pocket.

Step 8: Show everyone the lighter, making sure everyone can see there is nothing in your right hand, then light the papers in the ashtray.

Step 9: As the papers begin to burn turn away and say ‘I won’t look in case it becomes visible’. Now secretly reach in your pocket, grab the paper and take a quick look.

Step 10: Perform a mind read on the volunteer to reveal what was written.

This trick requires quite a bit of practise to get the sleight of hand and misdirection right. Make sure you have practised it plenty before your first performance :)

How To Hypnotize: A Classic Induction

How To Hypnotize

This induction is based on the Elman Induction. To begin with the subject should be sitting in a comfortable chair with you sitting close by.

1. Deep breath and closing the eyes

Say ‘Sit back and relax. Take a deep breath and then just let it go, that’s right….

now take another breath and feel your eyes closing, shutting tighter and tighter, your eyelids so relaxed, so tired, so heavy, that you can’t open them.

….Your eyes are now so relaxed you know they will not open. Even and when you try to open them you can’t. Try to open them now’ (the subjects eyes remain closed).

2. Relaxing the body

‘Take that same quality of relaxation, and allow it to spread from the top of your head right down to the tips of your toes like a wave of relaxation….

…let go and relax every muscle in your body…. that’s right’.

3. Fractionation (to deepen the trance)

‘In a moment I’m going to ask you to open your eyes and when I do I want you to open them.

….When you open your eyes my hand will be there. I will move my hand down and when I do I want you to close your eyes again. As you do I want you to double your relaxation’

Get the subject to open and close their eyes 3 times.

4. Hand drop test (dropping hand to test for loss of muscle tension)

‘In a moment, I’m going to pick up your left arm by the wrist….

….when I do your arm will be loose and limp like a wet dish cloth.

In a moment I am going to release your arm and as it drops down you will go even deeper into trance…. That’s right…. allow yourself to go deeper down now…. ‘

4. “Losing the numbers” (deepener for mental relaxation)

‘In a moment, I’ll ask you to begin slowly counting out loud backwards, from 100. Within just a few numbers, the rest of them will just disappear. As you say each number and feel yourself go deeper and deeper….

So starting now… I will count with you to start with 100, 99, 98….

and as you count those numbers will relax you more and more…..

And when you have relaxed those numbers right out of your mind…. you can stop counting….. as you drift further from your mind, lost, one, good.’

Ask ‘Are the numbers gone now?’ Make sure you get a response. The subject is now in trance with their body and mind fully relaxed.

5. Awaken

To conclude the trance simply say ‘As I count to 3 you will open your eyes, 1….2…..3 …… wake up’

Contact Mind Reading Trick

Contact Mind Reading

A person’s thoughts are often given away through their body language. In this trick we are going to use muscle reading to get a person to lead us to a hidden object.

In Derren Brown Trick of The Mind 1 [DVD] [2004] Derren uses this skill to find an object hidden in the labyrinthine streets of Venice. Derren has a highly developed ability to read body language, however, it is likely he started learning by practising simple muscle reading techniques like this one.

Here is the trick as shown on hit TV show The Mentalist > a0gn6E1tCNs

The Trick

This trick is ideally performed for 1 of more people in a room at a gathering of friends or a party. You need a subject who will hide an object eg. a coin in the room and you will then use contact mind reading to determine where the object is. The subject should be responsive and willing to follow your instructions for this to work correctly :)

Step 1: Tell the subject to hide the object somewhere in the room while you step out for a minute. The object must be hidden somewhere within reach and must not be on the person.

Step 2: Leave the room while the object is hidden. Don’t peek! You might want to take someone to watch you if there are more than 2 of you present so everyone knows you haven’t looked.

Step 3: When you go back in the room take one of the subject’s hands in your hand. Tell them to relax their arm and support the weight.

Step 4: Now you must convince the person to follow your instructions. Tell them the success of the mind reading trick depends on the strength of their will power to make you go to the object. Tell them not to lead you but to repeat over and over in their mind where the object is.

Step 5: Lead the person to the middle of the room and at this point tell them to now begin repeating in their minds which direction the object is in.

Step 6: Move their hand in one direction and feel for resistance. If you feel resistance, try the other way, if not continue in the same direction. The object in in the direction where least resistance is felt.

Step 7: Once you think you know which general direction the object is in begin to pull the subject towards it, still being aware of resistance.

Step 8: When you get in the general location of the object ask the person to repeat in their mind the direction. Is it up or down? A little more to the left or right? You might feel the arm move. Move the hand, again feeling for resistance.

Step 9: You should now know where the object is. You can either reveal it or lead them to another place in the room before revealing it.

Notes

Of course you are not going to be able to perform this trick right off the bat. You need to practice with a friend before you perform for a larger group. The more practice you get with different people the better you will get.

Here are a few things to bare in mind to make the contact mind reading trick a success:

  • The subject needs to follow your instructions. The effect will not work if the subject thinks of somewhere else in the room to trip you up .
  • When practising with a friend its fine to let them know you are muscle reading. However, when performing give the impression you are mind reading and don’t let the audience know you are muscle reading instead.
  • The trick works on a principle called the ideomotor response. This is largely an unconscious response which means the person will not be aware they are leading you in any particular direction.
  • Some subjects are more suggestible than others, with some subjects you may feel their arm actually pulling you towards the object.

Mentalism Effect: Memory Test

Mentalism Memory Test

Mnemonics or memory systems are a key component of mentalism. Here we take a look at a simple memory test which will amaze your audience!

The effect is to have members of the audience call out 15-20 things and for you to recall them in any order. While some people are familiar with memory systems the effect is still impressive and is used by many mentalists. Give it a try with friends, it is relatively easy to learn and you may be pleasantly surprised :)

There are several memory systems you can use to accomplish this mentalism effect. In this article we look at 1 tried and tested method which should serve you well.

Step 1

  • Memorise a key for numbers 1-20
  • The key for each number is an object which you associate in your mind with a number
  • The object should have some relevance to the number. One way of doing this is through rhyming

Example Memory Key

1 – Sun, 2 – Shoe, 3 – Sea, 4 – Saw, 5 – Hive, 6 – Sticks, 7 – Heaven, 8 – Gate, 9 – Mine, 10 – Pen, 11 – Devon, 12 – Shelf, 13 – Skirting, 14 – Flooring, 15 – Lifting, 16 – Pixie, 17 – Tin of Beans, 18 – Painting, 19 – Lightning, 20 – Horn of Plenty (Ice Cream)

Step 2

Each object on the list should be made into a vivid image in the mind’s eye. The object should also be performing an action, which should be consistent each time you visualise the object.

For instance: (1.) The sun could have a face which is smiling brightly or could be emitting heat rays, (2.) Something could be being placed into the shoe, (3.) The sea could be lapping at the shore.

Performance

1. Get a member of the audience to write a list of numbers 1-20 on a sheet of paper or blackboard. This person is to record objects as they are called out. The sheet is faced towards the audience so they can see it but you can’t.

2. Ask someone in the audience to call out an object for No. 1.

3. As soon as you hear what the object is, immediately associate it with the relevant object from the key. The object should interact with the object from the key and the image should be unusual. For example if a mobile phone is suggested the image could be the sun laughing at an old 1980s style mobile phone.

4. As soon as you have created a vivid image immediately forget it and move on to the next number and do the same again until you have done all 20.

5. Once all 20 items have been called out invite members of the audience to call out numbers between 1 and 20 at random and recall them using your key.

Notes:

  • Invite the audience to give detailed objects, this can add humour
  • The quicker you can memorise and recall the objects the more impressive the effect is
  • Though we have chosen 20 objects for the sake of a performance the number can be much higher, you just need to extend the key

 

NLP Eye Patterns

NLP eye patterns are a useful thing to know for mentalists.

A lot of the theories of NLP have been debunked by scientists however, eye patterns are one part of NLP which has stood up to scientific analysis.

When a person is accessing information from their brain, their eyes look in different directions as they access different types of information.

For a person who is ‘normally’ oriented there are 6 directions the person will look in. This gives the observer information about the type of information the person is accessing, whether that be visual, auditory, kinesthetic or self-talk.

From Your View Point

NLP Eye Patterns
  • VC – Up and left, Visual Constructed. Person constructing a visual image.
  • VR – Up and right, Visual Remembered. Person remembering something visual.
  • AC – Sideways and left, Auditory Constructed. Person constructing a sound.
  • AR – Sideways and right, Auditory Remembered. Person remembering a sound.
  • K – Down and left, Kinesthetic. Person accessing feelings
  • AD – Down and right, Auditory Digital. Self talk

Eye patterns are useful to know. For one thing they can help you deduce if someone is telling the truth.

To do this first establish a baseline by asking a few questions (because not everyone is normally oriented). For example ask ‘what colour is your front door?’ for a visual remembered response, ‘what’s your favourite song?’ for an auditory remembered response, ‘imagine a pink elephant’ for visual constructed response.

Pay attention to where the eyes go as the person responds, some people’s eye movements are more pronounced than others.

Once you have a baseline you can tell if someone is remembering something or ‘constructing’ something on subsequent questions. This can help in lie detection.

Eye patterns aren’t always clear cut for more complicated questions. For example, to answer a question a person may access different parts of the brain involving images, sounds and feelings before they respond.

NLP experts claim to be able to view such sequences and make meaningful conclusions about them. They use the information for therapeutic work.

The Drunkard’s Walk Review

The Drunkard’s walk is a massively insightful book about… luck!

Think you are on a streak of extreme bad luck and failure even though you have the talent to be a star?  You could be right.

Put your successful life down to your immense ability and good looks? You could just have been in the right place at the right time.

History of Randomness

The Greeks did not believe in randomness and thought things worked according to the will of the Gods.

In fact the Greeks didn’t even have a number 0, it wasn’t until the 9th century that the concept of 0 was introduced by an Indian mathematician.

The Romans made some progress but it wasn’t until the 16th century that the first book on uncertainty was published, written by an Italian gambler!

It was at this time in Italy that the scientific revolution was taking place and there were other advancements in the study of chance for example Galileo’s work.

Pascal’s triangle, Pascal’s wager, Principia by Newton, the Bernoulli principle, Bayesian theory, the Laplace distribution and String theory have all helped advance our understanding of probability.

Randomness Rules

Our ability matters but so does randomness…

A stock speculator predicted the outcome of the US stock exchange for 12 years using nothing but the Superbowl to make his predictions…

Bruce Willis would not have got his breakthrough if he hadn’t gone to see his girlfriend in LA and chanced upon an audition for Moonlighting.

Bill Gates happened on a lucky series of events and went on to be the richest man in the world.

An average type of baseball player called Merris beat Babe Ruth’s home run record in 1961.

Understanding Randomness

First impressions count big time!

All of our perceptions are based on the initial information we receive about something and we don’t even realise we are doing it. This shortcut means we are prone to making mistakes and not looking at information objectively.

Many famous authors and moviemakers like George Lucas, JK Rowling and John Grisham had their work rejected countless times before they got a breakthrough.

If a sequence is long enough we will observe many unusual sequences. A sequence of good luck can be viewed as being influenced by skill, a phenomenon called the hot hand fallacy.

Derren Brown uses this principle in The System

A lack of control leads to anxiety so there is a fundamental clash between human nature and the true nature of things.

Conclusions

Do you think rich and successful people are the most gifted and hardest working? They may just have had all the lucky breaks. And take it easy on the beggar in the street, he might have had a serious streak of bad luck that could have happened to anyone.

In your own life remember that the more times you roll the dice the more chance you have of making it – so don’t give up and try lots of things!

Spend more time reflecting on the possibility that you might be wrong about something instead of presuming you are right…

If you really want to get into the spirit of things read Dice Man by Luke Rheinhart and get rolling that dice 😉

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Sway, The Irresistible Pull Of Irrational Behaviour – Review

People are irrational. Every day there are unseen psychological forces at work controlling your actions and you are not even aware of them… until you’ve read this book! (unless you’re a psychologist).

Loss Aversion

We don’t want to lose and we’ll do anything to avoid it. Whether its capital tied up in stocks and shares, paying extra for food, or if its our reputation on the line, we avoid loss like the plague. We want to gain but we don’t want to lose more because loss is painful.

If a loss is more meaningful we’ll avoid it even more and even the word loss has a powerful effect on us.

We see a regular $20 being sold for $200 at an auction, people giving up buying eggs and investors losing everything when they refused to cut their losses.

Value Attribution

Our brains have a useful shortcut as to whether we should pay attention to something, we give it an instant value. This shortcut can trip us up though because things aren’t always what they seem. What about that priceless antique at the jumble sale or a world class violinist…

Diagnostic Bias

Beware diagnostic bias. You are constantly labelling things then ignoring or ‘refining’ all future information about it. But what if you were wrong in the first instance?

And its not just you who is affected by your grossly innacurate view of things. People react to the labels placed on them (The Cameleon Effect) and this can have profound effects on a persons ability, confidence and health.

Fairness

Fairness is irrational. People have an acute sense of fairness however it is vastly affected by cultural factors so your idea of whats fair will be different to someone in another part of the world.

Commitment

Committing to a course of action can undoubtedly help us achieve our goals but the examples in the book show catastrophic plane crashes and people losing everything when they commit to a course of action then don’t rationally evaluate things along the way.

Selfish or Altruistic?

When performing tasks we are either being driven by a selfish part of our brain or the altruistic part. Both can’t operate at the same time and the selfish brain will hijack the altruistic brain given half a chance.

For this reason we should be careful to offer a reward for tasks which may be done better for altruistic reasons. Such behaviour has seen great teachers become poor ones and rewarded children perform worse on tests.

Group Dynamics

In groups we see 4 types of people – initiators, blockers, supporters, observers and they are all important in helping the group reach correct decisions. People are reluctant to voice opinions which differ from those of a group, unless someone else has voiced an alternative opinion.

Key Learnings

Irrational sways are everywhere an affecting our lives. Being aware of them can help us to avoid the pitfalls of irrational behaviour.

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Derren Brown, Tricks of the Mind Extracts. Audiobook Review

This audiobook is taken from the fantastic book Tricks of the Mind and teaches the basics of hypnosis, a couple of magic tricks and some powerful memory techniques.

Disk 1: Hypnosis

Derren says he thinks hypnosis is very safe but gives 7 rules to bear in mind just to be extra cautious:

  1. Don’t try to hypnotise someone who is clearly disturbed or has epilepsy
  2. Don’t attempt any therapeutic change unless you are suitably qualified
  3. Treat hypnosis as a gentle tool
  4. Everything you do contributes to the hypnosis. Don’t get flustered
  5. At end make sure person is completely out of belief that they are hypnotised
  6. Take it slowly and only try in a controlled environment
  7. Treat it first as a relaxation tool and move slowly into administering suggestions

What you learn:

  • In its simplest form hypnosis is pacing someone’s experience then leading them to behaviours you want.
  • Use presupposition. This means you presuppose something to be true eg. as your eyes get heavier/ you can wonder how deeply you are going into trance
  • Use double binds where the only options are 2 you have suggested.
  • Tone of voice – gentle and relaxed
  • Use imagery to involve all the senses
  • Don’t contradict yourself and don’t be specific

Framework:

  1. Prepare subject and induce light stages of trance, this may include eye closure
  2. Deepen the trance through a metaphor such as going down the stairs
  3. Carry out your hypnotic work
  4. Fully awaken the subject

Disk 2: Magic

Coin Trick – A Coin Slide

The trick involves sliding a coin off a table, pretending to pick it up and pulling it into your lap.

The trick is enhanced by using another coin for misdirection and placing the coins on the table in advance.

Card trick – A Sucker Trick

  1. Get someone to shuffle cards (need someone with basic overhand shuffle)
  2. Look at cardface then immediately turn away and spread the deck in your hands, showing everyone faces of deck
  3. Turn face down and place squared up on table
  4. Bottom card is key card
  5. Get person to cut deck in 2 and place top half to your right
  6. Turn away and remove card he cut to (top card of bottom half) and look at it
  7. Pick up bottom half
  8. Tell him to replace card
  9. Get person to shuffle cards again
  10. Say you will put cards face up on table and he is not to react if you see his card
  11. Turn over 1 at a time, card after key card is his card. Carry on after chosen card appears but make sure index of chosen card remains visible to you
  12. Stop then ask to bet that next card turned over will be the card
  13. Then reach for the card in pie and turn over

Magic tips:

  • Most of the magic is created after the trick
  • A state of amazement leaves spectators more open to suggestion
  • To make them look less foolish people will trick themselves eg. Think they definitely saw card in magicians hand
  • Magic is helped by people watching closely and using the off beat when both you and they relax
  • Conjurer creates false trail of events
  • Best to be simple and direct

Disk 3: Memory

No such thing as photographic memory. A few people have an idetic memory and can hold the image of a scene in their minds but it typically can’t be held for long and is prone to distortions. Individuals with great memories use rich mnemonic strategies.

Memory is a set of processes. We can remember 7 or so units after which point we instinctively want to break it down into smaller chunks.

Linking System:

  1. Use vivid images and attach strong emotions
  2. Elements should interact
  3. Picture should be unusual

Uses of linking system – shopping lists, tasks, speeches and for actors

Drawback – if stuck on 1 word system breaks down

Loci System:

  1. Use a route you know with locations on the way.
  2. Take a list of things and relate an item to each location.
  3. Place a strong visual representation at each location.
  • Memory palaces – Expand number of loci eg. In your house
  • Its better to have action take place inside something
  • You need to go through things in fixed order eg. Clockwise
  • You can use for permanent memory.
  • Expand loci – have a door from your house lead to another familiar building. Use places from real life eg. museums you have visited

Remembering Names

  1. When you meet with someone immediately think of someone you already know with the same name
  2. Imagine person in front of you has been made up to look at bit like the person you know

or

  1. Connect name with another image eg. Mike becomes a microphone stand, bill becomes an invoice
  2. Find something memorable about the person’s appearance. Better to be a physical feature
  3. Link the 2 together
  • Its best to make image as efficient as possible
  • Can put other info into scene
  • Importance of reviewing

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Magic And Mentalism Festival King’s Arms Salford

Eggs Sausage Peas (ESP)

I arrived at the King’s Arms to be welcomed by a silver faced man organising the Ghost tour!

It was a 1 hr show based on the Egg Sausage Peas show which is 2 hrs.

I have checked the web for Jonathan Royle and some of the comments on forums are less than complimentary but I hadn’t checked before and this hadn’t coloured my view of the show.

I thought the show was great. The audience was not that large but was attentive and enthusiastic.

The Show

Got started with some comedy warm up tricks eg. ‘can you guess what word I am going to predict?’ No – pulls out card with No on. A lady picked a celebrity which was Simon Cowell and Jonathan Royle pulls out 3 cards with pictures of babies on then picture of Simon Cowell, which was an impressive prediction.

A guy was asked up on stage for a card prediction. A deck of cards tied by an elastic band were thrown out and 3 members of the audience including me looked at a card each. I had 10 of clubs.

Jonathan chose 1 card to write down and the audience member rang a friend who chose the other 2.

Jonathan wrote 3 numbers on a card and read them out then asked us each to sit down individually if our card had been read out. One by one we all sat down.

5 stars: 5 members of the audience were chosen to get up on stage and they had to choose masks with celebrity faces on. The faces were then matched up with favourite colours but in the reveal we saw the trick had gone wrong.

Next was a trick on the power of positive thinking. Quite a big guy was selected to sit on a chair and the other 4 members of the audience tried to lift him with 2 fingers put together. They tried with signs around their necks on which was written at first negative emotions then positive emotions, and with the positive signs the man was lifted off his chair.

This was followed by a trick where one of the audience selects a number 1-6, a spike is placed on that number under a cup and a dice is rolled to decide which cups were to be smashed using only bare hands. After one of the earlier tricks had gone wrong this one was a bit nerve wracking!

There were a few more tricks which went well including predicting a cartoon character from a book and predicting a date written on the bottom of a tray.

Luca Volpe

The Show

  • A member of the audience had to choose between 2 cards, one with a 50 euro note in. The one with no money in was chosen
  • The assistant guessed the amount of money I had in my pockets
  • He predicted who had drawn which picture out of 4 volunteers
  • He revealed some writing and numbers on a scroll at the end of the show which matched a newspaper cutting a lady made on stage

 

Your Inner Fish, Neil Shubin – Review

Your Inner Fish is all about human evolution.

By looking at fossil records, genes and life on earth today we can work out where we came from and its fascinating.

It is no exaggeration to say this book will change the way you look at the world.

Chapter 1: Finding Your Inner Fish

375 million years ago a fish called Tiktaalik appears in the fossil records in Greenland.

With its flat head and primitive limb-like fins the Tiktaalik fossil is a sea dwelling fish evolving to being a land living animal.

It was cleverly discovered by Shubin and his colleagues after studying the geology of the area and making precise predictions about the fossil record.

Chapter 2: Getting a Grip

By looking at animals with limbs scientists noticed animals as diverse as bats, horses and frogs all have a common design for their limbs, the only thing that changes is the shape and size of the bones.

Humans can rotate our hands relative to our elbows,using a pivot point. This lineage can be traced back to Tiktaalik who could also bend its elbow.

Life in and out of water is not that clearcut with some ancient and modern day fish having lungs.

It appears that fish began growing limbs to escape the water and the fierce predators that lived there.

Chapter 3: Handy Genes

Each cell in our body contains the genetic code to make the whole body.

Different genes are active in the different cell types and genetic switches help assemble us. Interestingly the gene responsible for limb and fin development is the same.

This points to the fact that the evolution of limbs from fins did not require any new genes.

Chapter 4: Teeth Everywhere

Looking at teeth gives us lots of clues about our genetic heritage.

Mammals have a single jaw bone and top and bottom teeth which match up. Reptiles have jaws with many bones and replace teeth continually. Primitive fish like Lampreys have no jaws and feed by attaching themselves to other fish and feeding on their body fluids.

Human teeth reveal that we are all purpose eaters, having incisors specialised to cut food, canines in the back and molars in extreme back to shear or mash food.

Our teeth are the hardest parts of our bodies, Hydroxyapatite giving them their hardness.

The primary purpose of teeth is to allow us to eat things that are bigger than our mouths.

Chapter 5: Getting Ahead

In this chapter we learn that the essence of our heads goes right back to worms.

The muscles in the head are attached to the brain and organs. The nerves in the head look very much like the wiring in an old building, not making logical sense. They have evolved that way to accommodate other features eg. giraffes neck.

Chapter 6: The Best Laid (Body) Plans

The plans for our bodies goes back to fish and if you think about it that’s quite logical. Their bodies are lined up like ours, they have heads and spines.

Animals in other lineages such as sponges and jellyfish have fundamentally different body plans.

Chapter 7: Adventures in Bodybuilding

In experiments using bacteria, predation has been shown to produce multi cellular organisms from single celled ones over a number of generations.

Around 1 bn years ago bacteria began eating each other and at the same time oxygen levels increased in the atmosphere which allowed for multi cellular organisms to survive.

We evolved from these multi cellular organisms, with cells specialising and eventually leading to skeletons and limbs.

Chapter 8: Making Scents

Our sense of smell goes back to being a fish.

Lampreys and Hagfish have single nostril and extract odours from water. Lungfish have 2 kinds of nostrils, external and internal which is similar to the structure we have.

Mammals developed a much greater sense of smell and in fact a whole 3% of the human genome is devoted to smell.

Humans though, like other primates with colour vision, have a diminished sense of smell. Apparently there was an evolutionary trade off between the 2.

Dolphins have no sense of smell and use what was their noses as blow holes to blow out water.

Chapter 9: Vision

The eyes capture light and transmit it to the brain where it is processed.

An amazing 70% of our sensory cells are used for vision.

Fascinatingly, the origin of the eye can be traced right back to bacteria!

There is a single gene which triggers the formation of the eye called pac 6 and this is the same in many creatures with eyes.

Chapter 10: Ears

The history of the inner ear can be traced to ancient fish and the neurons even further.

Mammals’ middle ears are different to other species, having 3 bones.

Interestingly one jelly fish, the Box Jelly fish has 20 eyes, though no other type of jellyfish has eyes.

Chapter 11: The Meaning Of It All

Looking at a human is like looking back in time through our evolutionary heritage. Some of our features started with bacteria, some with fish, others as mammals.

If we look at other animals it becomes apparent which parts are similar. We have many similarities to a Polar Bear, fewer with a Turtle and fewer still with a regular fish.

Many human illnesses are a result of our sedentary lifestyle when our bodies are built for an active one.

Epilogue

We should embrace scientific study without fear.

Maybe it will give us a deeper understanding of human nature and help us cure illnesses

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